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Sexual orientation bias definition dictionary

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Conceived and designed the experiments: The article aims to measure implicit sexual attitude in heterosexual, gay and bisexual individuals. A preference for heterosexuals relative to homosexuals is observed in heterosexual respondents, driven most by associating positive attributes with heterosexuals rather than negative attributes with homosexuals.

Differently, neither the negative nor the positive evaluation of any of the target groups play a prominent role in driving the preference for homosexuals observed in gay respondents. A preference for heterosexuals relative to homosexuals is observed in bisexual respondents, that results most from ascribing negative attributes to homosexuals rather than positive attributes to heterosexuals.

The results are consistent with the expression of the need for achieving a positive self-image and with the influence of shared social norms concerning sexuality.

Sexual prejudice refers to a negative attitude toward an individual because of her or his sexual orientation. In the last decade, research on prejudice based on sexual orientation has taken advantage of the diffusion of implicit measures. These measures aim at capturing positive and negative features of the target object that might rely outside of conscious awareness, or that might not be accurately reported through introspection.

For these reasons, implicit measures are more resistant than explicit measures to response biases, such as social desirability, impression management Sexual orientation bias definition dictionary and limited introspective access [2]. It is a computerized two-choice discrimination task in which stimuli have to be categorized as belonging to the target categories Heterosexuals and Homosexualsor to the attribute categories Good and Bad by pressing, as quickly and accurately as possible, one of two response keys.

Categorizing the stimuli more quickly when Heterosexuals shares the response key with Good — and Homosexuals with Bad — than when it shares the response key with Bad — and Homosexuals with Good — is taken to indicate an implicit preference for heterosexuals relative to homosexuals. Previous research using the Sexuality IAT found that individuals tend to prefer heterosexuals to homosexuals [3] — [6].

Looking at participants with different sexual orientation, a preference for one's own sexual orientation was observed in both heterosexual and gay individuals [7][8]although such a preference was weaker for the latter [9] see [10] for a review.

To date, however, there are no studies specifically focused on the investigation of the implicit sexual attitude of bisexual individuals. When present [4][5]data concerning bisexuals were aggregated with those regarding gays. In this paper, we investigated the implicit sexual attitude of heterosexual, gay and bisexual individuals, keeping the three groups distinct. As an additional novelty, we analyzed the contribution of specific associations between target groups and positive vs.

The IAT effect is the comparison between the response latencies in two mappings that differ in the target and attribute categories that share the same response key. There is a growing interest on analyzing and decomposing the IAT effect.

For instance, models such as the QUAD model [11] Sexual orientation bias definition dictionary, the diffusion model [12] Sexual orientation bias definition dictionary, and the discrimination-association model [13] have been proposed that disentangle multiple, qualitatively different processes underlying the responses Sexual orientation bias definition dictionary the IAT.

In the present paper, we disentangled the contribution of specific associations to the overall measure by investigating how the speed of categorization of individual stimuli changed according to the associative condition they were presented in.

It is worth noting that the proposed procedure is different from sorting the trials into subsets and computing separate IAT effects for the two targets. Such a procedure is not advisable in analyzing IAT data [14].

Instead, we assessed the differential contribution of individual stimuli to the overall IAT effect, which remains a measure of a target relative to the other. The speed of categorization of the stimuli is expressed by interval measures characterized by a measurement unit that, if the data fit Sexual orientation bias definition dictionary model, maintains the same size over the entire continuum.

It follows that the measurement and comparison of different elements is more precise. Moreover, the MFRM allows us to investigate whether the speed of categorization of individual stimuli differs in the two associative conditions.

The proposed procedure has a strong potential for understanding the meaning of the implicit measure itself. For instance, consider the implicit preference for white people relative to black people that is usually observed in the literature [3]"Sexual orientation bias definition dictionary." If the stimuli that contribute most to the measure Sexual orientation bias definition dictionary the positive ones, rather than the negative ones, then the implicit preference should be interpreted more as an expression of pro-Whites bias, rather than anti-Blacks bias.

If the opposite occurs, the same implicit preference should be interpreted more as an expression of anti-Blacks bias, rather than pro-Whites bias. Taking into account the contribution of different stimuli provides researchers with a detailed depiction of the implicit associations that mostly underlie the measure and that might differ across individualsand allows them to precisely define the construct under investigation.

Moreover, it prevents researchers from misreading the real meaning of the implicit measure. An example of such a misunderstanding has been described in the analysis of racial attitude. By means of the proposed procedure, it was found that the implicit preference for white people displayed by white individuals especially resulted from the attribution of positive traits to Whites, rather than of negative traits to Blacks [19].

Therefore, it was argued that the implicit measure of racial attitude might not necessarily imply black derogation, but could be mostly related to white favoritism.

Someone who is not gender...

Independent contributions reached similar conclusions with different strategies of analysis see, e. Disentangling the contribution of individual stimuli could be particularly useful when sexual prejudice is measured across different sexual orientations. For instance, it might help to answer questions concerning the direction of the preference observed in heterosexuals e. The study was conducted online.

Sexual orientation bias definition dictionary to the Project Implicit Italian demonstration site https: Participants voluntarily searched for and accessed the Project Implicit demonstration site in order to assess associations they may have about people and social groups.

Before entering the study, they were informed that the study might detect associations that they were not consciously aware of and with which they might even explicitly disagree. Before entering the study, participants gave their consent by clicking on the following sentence: Participants were able to drop out of the study at any time without any consequences.

The study was in Italian. In Italy there is no legal requirement to obtain approval from an institutional review board IRB for non-clinical research studies. The authors work in a university in which no IRB existed at the time when the data were collected.

Out of the respondents who started the IAT in a two years long data collection, provided complete data, and provided data that were interpretable according to the data reduction criteria for internet research [22].

Their mean age was Six hundred eighty-nine respondents identified themselves as heterosexuals mean age Images and words were used to represent the target categories Heterosexuals and Homosexuals.

Meaning of Sexual orientation stereotyping...

Positive words and negative words were used to represent the attribute categories Good beautiful, glorious, joyful, lovely, marvelous, pleasure and wonderful and Bad agony, awful, horrible, humiliate, nasty, painful, terrible and tragic. We employed the Italian translation of these words, which are currently in use in the Sexuality IAT provided by Sexual orientation bias definition dictionary Implicit https: Stimuli were presented in the center of the computer screen in an alternating fashion, and respondents had to categorize them by pressing, as quickly and accurately as possible, the response key E or I.

A red cross appeared in the event of a mistake. The procedure consisted of seven blocks. Three practice blocks involved the categorization of stimuli that represented either the target categories or the attribute categories.

Four critical blocks involved the simultaneous categorization of stimuli representing the four categories with two response mappings. In one mapping, Heterosexuals and Good shared a response key, and Homosexuals and Bad shared the Sexual orientation bias definition dictionary. In the other mapping, Heterosexuals and Bad shared a response key, and Homosexuals and Good shared the other.

Sexual orientation discrimination is discrimination...

The order of the two mappings was counterbalanced across the respondents. The IAT data available at http: The model represents a rigorous frame of reference [17] in which measuring and comparing the stimuli, and allows the investigation of the contribution of individual stimuli to the overall IAT measure.

The MFRM takes into account any source of systematic variability facet which might be useful for explaining the likelihood of a response. In Sexual orientation bias definition dictionary present study, facets are a respondents, b sexual orientation of respondents, c attribute stimuli, and d associative condition.

In our dependent variable, the values 3, 2 and 1 identify fast, medium and slow responses, respectively. All the estimates are interval measures. Higher values indicate higher response speed, and they should be interpreted as higher respondents' speed in completing the Sexual orientation bias definition dictionary, higher speed of categorization of the stimuli, and greater ease of the associative conditions.

Estimates of sexual orientations, associative conditions and attribute stimuli were constrained to have a mean element estimate of zero. The MFRM analysis provided a number of indices for details, see [26][27].

Data-model infit and outfit statistics were computed for each element of each facet. Expected values for both statistics are equal to 1, and values in the range from 0.

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R ranges between 0 and 1, and shows how much the differences observed between the estimates are true and not due to error R close to 1. The MFRM allows the analysis of the interactions between elements of different facets [25]. The interaction between the facets associative condition and sexual orientation allowed us to investigate whether the ease of the associative conditions changes with the sexual orientation of respondents differential condition functioning.

Moreover, the interaction between the facets attribute stimuli, associative condition and sexual orientation allowed us to investigate whether Sexual orientation bias definition dictionary speed of categorization of the stimuli changes according to the sexual orientation of respondents and the associative condition they are presented in differential stimulus functioning.

This provides us with the contribution of each individual stimulus to the overall IAT measure and with a detailed depiction of the implicit associations underlying the responses provided by individuals of different sexual orientation.

Both infit and outfit were excellent for the facets sexual orientation 0. Only 14 out of the respondents 1. To compare the strength of the preference observed in heterosexual and gay respondents, we compared the size of their IAT effects in absolute terms: For the sake of comparison with classical analysis, we also computed the traditional D 2 score [28]obtaining the same pattern of results: Table 1 provides information concerning the differential Sexual orientation bias definition dictionary functioning, separately for the three groups of respondents.

For each individual stimulus, it is shown whether its overall speed of categorization i. This allowed us to investigate the contribution of each individual stimulus to the overall implicit measure.

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